This study is the most comprehensive analysis of cucujoid taxa to date, with DNA sequence data sampled from eight genes four nuclear, four mitochondrial for coleopteran taxa, including exemplars of 35 of 37 families and genera of Cucujoidea.
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Tenebrionoidea and Lymexyloidea are recovered together and Cleroidea forms the sister group to this clade. Chrysomeloidea les parasites de l homme Curculionoidea are recovered as sister taxa and this clade Phytophaga forms the sister group to the core Cucujoidea Cucujoidea s.
The nitidulid series is recovered as the earliest-diverging core cucujoid lineage, although the earliest divergences among core Cucujoidea are only weakly supported. The cerylonid series CS is recovered as monophyletic and is supported as a major Cucujiform clade, sister group to the remain- ing superfamilies of Cucujiformia. Currently recognized taxa that were not recovered as monophyletic include Cucujoidea, Endomychidae, Cerylonidae and Bothrideridae.
Biphyllidae and Byturidae were recovered in Cleroidea. Propalticidae are recovered within Laemophloeidae. The cerylonid series includes two major clades, the bothriderid group and the coccinellid group. Akalyptois- chiidae are recovered as a separate clade from Latridiidae. Eupsilobiinae are recovered as the sister taxon to Coccinellidae.
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Biphyllidae and Byturidae are trans- ferred to Cleroidea. The cerylonid series is formally recognized as a new superfamily, Correspondence: James A.
E-mail: erotylid gmail. Robertson et al.
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Coccinelloidea stat. Current subfamilies elevated or re-elevated to family status include: Murmidiidae stat. A new subfamily, Cyclotominae stat. Stenotarsinae syn. The group is currently divided into six superfamilies: Lymexyloidea ship-timber beetles; c.
The group was established for convenience and represents the largest taxonomic dumping ground among the superfamilies of Coleoptera. As such, characterizing Cucujoidea is problematic. Cucujoids exhibit a broad range of host utilization and typically have cryptic life histories in leaf litter, dead wood or fungi Fig.
Members of these fam- ilies were either misplaced among existing taxa or previously unknown. The third major advancement in cucujoid systematics was the recognition of a group of beetles related to Cerylonidae, termed the cerylonid group, or cerylonid series CS Crowson, More recently, Leschen et al.
The objective of their study was primarily to determine the relationships of taxa allied to the family Phloeostichidae using adult and larval morphology.
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Leschen et al. Their study did not include any taxa belonging to the CS. Hunt et al. The study included 54 exemplars representing 24 families of Cucujoidea in their taxa dataset and their results recovered Cucujoidea as grossly polyphyletic.
Silvanidae and Phloeostichidae were recovered sister to Curculionoidea; Byturidae and Biphyllidae were placed within Cleroidea; the CS was recovered as the sister group to Cleroidea; the family Sphindidae was supported as the sister group to Tenebrionoidea including Lymexyloidea ; the remaining cucujoid exemplars formed a large clade sister to Chrysomeloidea.
Bocak et al. Their supermatrix comprised over les parasites de l homme not all were different species. A Paracucujus rostratus Boganiidae. B Megauchenia sp. C Psammoecus sp.
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D Pharaxonotha sp. E Ericmodes sylvaticus Protocucujidae.
F Cryptophagus sp. G Anthonaeus agavensis Kateretidae. H Hobartius sp. Hobartiidae I Diplocoelus sp.
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J Teredolaemus sp. Teredidae stat. K Bystus sp. Anamorphidae stat.
L Bicava sp. Photos by JAR.
Lawrence et al. Surprisingly, the CS was also not recovered as monophyletic. Cerylonid series The cerylonid series is a cluster of presumably highly derived families within Cucujoidea Crowson, com- prising Alexiidae, Bothrideridae, Cerylonidae, Coccinellidae, Corylophidae, Discolomatidae, Endomychidae, Latridiidae and most recently Akalyptoischiidae Lord et al.
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Together, the CS families comprise 32 subfamilies, 54 tribes Bouchard et al. Photos of cucujoid taxa in their corresponding microhabitats. B Stephostethus lardarius Latridiidae photograph by Pavel Krásenský, used by permission. C Aethina tumida Nitidulidae photograph by Alex Wild, used by permission.
D Philothermus sp.
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Cerylonidae photograph by Alex Wild, used by permission. F Cholovocera sp. Endomychidae photograph by Luigi Lenzini, used by permission.